Space Science Reviews

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The ASIM Mission on the International Space Station

Tue, 03/12/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) is an instrument suite on the International Space Station (ISS) for measurements of lightning, Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs). Developed in the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA), it was launched April 2, 2018 on the SpaceX CRS-14 flight to the ISS. ASIM was mounted on an external platform of ESA’s Columbus module eleven days later and is planned to take measurements during minimum 3 years. The instruments are an x- and gamma-ray monitor measuring photons from 15 keV to 20 MeV, and an array of three photometers and two cameras measuring in bands at: 180–250 nm, 337 nm and 777.4 nm. Additional objectives that can be addressed with the instruments relate to space physics like aurorae and meteors, and to Earth observation such as dust- and aerosol effects on cloud electrification. The paper describes the scientific objectives of the ASIM mission, the instruments, the mission architecture and the international collaboration supported by the ASIM Science Data Centre. ASIM is the first space mission with a comprehensive suite of instruments designed to measure TLEs and TGFs. Two companion papers describe the instruments in more detail (Østgaard et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2019; Chanrion et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2019).

The Galaxy Cluster Mass Scale and Its Impact on Cosmological Constraints from the Cluster Population

Thu, 02/28/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The total mass of a galaxy cluster is one of its most fundamental properties. Together with the redshift, the mass links observation and theory, allowing us to use the cluster population to test models of structure formation and to constrain cosmological parameters. Building on the rich heritage from X-ray surveys, new results from Sunyaev-Zeldovich and optical surveys have stimulated a resurgence of interest in cluster cosmology. These studies have generally found fewer clusters than predicted by the baseline Planck \(\varLambda\) CDM model, prompting a renewed effort on the part of the community to obtain a definitive measure of the true cluster mass scale. Here we review recent progress on this front. Our theoretical understanding continues to advance, with numerical simulations being the cornerstone of this effort. On the observational side, new, sophisticated techniques are being deployed in individual mass measurements and to account for selection biases in cluster surveys. We summarise the state of the art in cluster mass estimation methods and the systematic uncertainties and biases inherent in each approach, which are now well identified and understood, and explore how current uncertainties propagate into the cosmological parameter analysis. We discuss the prospects for improvements to the measurement of the mass scale using upcoming multi-wavelength data, and the future use of the cluster population as a cosmological probe.

Constraining Gas Motions in the Intra-Cluster Medium

Tue, 02/19/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The detailed velocity structure of the diffuse X-ray emitting intra-cluster medium (ICM) remains one of the last missing key ingredients in understanding the microphysical properties of these hot baryons and constraining our models of the growth and evolution of structure on the largest scales in the Universe. Direct measurements of the gas velocities from the widths and shifts of X-ray emission lines were recently provided for the central region of the Perseus Cluster of galaxies by Hitomi, and upcoming high-resolution X-ray microcalorimeters onboard XRISM and Athena are expected to extend these studies to many more systems. In the mean time, several other direct and indirect methods have been proposed for estimating the velocity structure in the ICM, ranging from resonant scattering to X-ray surface brightness fluctuation analysis, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, or using optical line emitting nebulae in the brightest cluster galaxies as tracers of the motions of the ambient plasma. Here, we review and compare the existing estimates of the velocities of the hot baryons, as well as the various overlapping physical processes that drive motions in the ICM, and discuss the implications of these measurements for constraining the viscosity and identifying the source of turbulence in clusters of galaxies.

The Modular X- and Gamma-Ray Sensor (MXGS) of the ASIM Payload on the International Space Station

Mon, 02/18/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) is an imaging and spectral X- and Gamma-ray instrument mounted on the starboard side of the Columbus module on the International Space Station. Together with the Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly (MMIA) (Chanrion et al. this issue) MXGS constitutes the instruments of the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) (Neubert et al. this issue). The main objectives of MXGS are to image and measure the spectrum of X- and \(\gamma \) -rays from lightning discharges, known as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), and for MMIA to image and perform high speed photometry of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and lightning discharges. With these two instruments specifically designed to explore the relation between electrical discharges, TLEs and TGFs, ASIM is the first mission of its kind. With an imaging system and a large detector area MXGS will, for the first time, allow estimation of the location of the source region and characterization of the energy spectrum of individual events. The sensors have fast readout electronics to minimize pileup effects, giving high time resolution of photon detection for comparison with measurements on μs-time scales of lightning processes measured by the MMIA and other sensors in space or on the ground. The detectors cover the large energy range of the relevant photon energies. In this paper we describe the scientific objectives, design, performance, imaging capabilities and operational modes of the MXGS instrument.

Image and Data Processing for InSight Lander Operations and Science

Mon, 02/18/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The Instrument Site Selection and deployment for the upcoming Mars InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Lander is highly dependent on image products, particularly mosaics, created from the Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC) and Instrument Context Camera (ICC). When data are downlinked, the Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL will process image and instrument data to aid in the deployment and monitoring of these instruments. MIPL’s functions include raw telemetry processing, stereo correlation, mosaic generation, terrain mesh generation, radiometric correction, pointing correction (bundle adjustment), and the creation of products such as instrument deployment maps, surface normal products, slope products, XYZ point clouds, and roughness map layers. A software pipeline performs systematic, automated execution of the programs that create these products on every image and stereo pair received, while the pointing correction and most mosaics are hand-generated by the MIPL team members for testing and surface operations. Several mission operations software packages are used to view, query, and analyze the processed images and mosaics for placing the main science instruments for the mission.

The Multi-needle Langmuir Probe Instrument for QB50 Mission: Case Studies of Ex-Alta 1 and Hoopoe Satellites

Mon, 02/18/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The QB50 mission is a satellite constellation designed to carry out measurements at between 200–380 km altitude in the ionosphere. The multi-needle Langmuir probe (m-NLP) instrument has been mounted on board eleven QB50 satellites in order to characterize ambient plasma. The distinct feature of this instrument is its capability of measuring the plasma density at high spatial resolution without the need to know the electron temperature or the spacecraft potential. While the instrument has been deployed on many sounding rockets, the QB50 satellites offer the opportunity to demonstrate the operation of the instrument in low-earth orbit (LEO). This paper provides a brief review of the m-NLP instrument specifically designed for the QB50 mission and the case studies of the instrument’s performance on board the Ex-Alta 1 and Hoopoe satellites. The system has also been functionally verified in a plasma chamber at the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC). Although the QB50 mission’s scientific goals have not been reached yet and some uncertainties still remain, there are some optimistic in-orbit preliminary results which could be helpful for the system improvement in future campaigns. Particularly, the electron emitter as part of the m-NLP science unit has demonstrated its capability in the plasma chamber and in orbit to mitigate spacecraft charging effects.

Comet 67P/CG Nucleus Composition and Comparison to Other Comets

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

We review our current knowledge of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko nucleus composition as inferred from measurements made by remote sensing and in-situ instruments aboard Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander. Spectrophotometric properties (albedos, color indexes and Hapke parameters) of 67P/CG derived by Rosetta are discussed in the context of other comets previously explored by space missions. Composed of an assemblage made of ices, organic materials and minerals, cometary nuclei exhibit very dark and red surfaces which can be described by means of spectrophotometric quantities and reproduced with laboratory measurements. The presence of surface water and carbon dioxide ices was found by Rosetta to occur at localized sites where the activity driven by solar input, gaseous condensation or exposure of pristine inner layers can maintain these species on the surface. Apart from these specific areas, 67P/CG’s surface appears remarkably uniform in composition with a predominance of organic materials and minerals. The organic compounds contain abundant hydroxyl group and a refractory macromolecular material bearing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The mineral components are compatible with a mixture of silicates and fine-grained opaques, including Fe-sulfides, like troilite and pyrrhotite, and ammoniated salts. In the vicinity of the perihelion several active phenomena, including the erosion of surface layers, the localized activity in cliffs, fractures and pits, the collapse of overhangs and walls, the transfer and redeposition of dust, cause the evolution of the different regions of the nucleus by inducing color, composition and texture changes.

The Origin and Fate of O 2 $\mbox{O}_{2}$ in Europa’s Ice: An Atmospheric Perspective

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The early prediction and subsequent detection of an \(\mbox{O}_{2}\) atmosphere on Europa, coupled with the discovery that Europa has an ocean under its ice mantle, has made this moon a prime astrobiologic target, soon to be visited by the JUICE and Europa Clipper spacecraft. In spite of the considerable number of observational, modeling, and laboratory efforts, understanding the physics leading to the observed morphology of Europa’s near-surface \(\mbox{O}_{2}\) atmosphere has been problematic. This is the case as the observed emissions depend on the local incident plasma ion flux, the local temperature and composition of the regolith, as well as on the near-surface electron temperature and density. Here we rely heavily on earlier reviews briefly summarizing the observational, laboratory and simulation efforts. Although it is agreed that radiolysis of the surface ice by the incident Jovian plasma is the ultimate source of observed O2, a recent, simple model of thermal desorption from a regolith permeated with \(\mbox{O}_{2}\) has changed the usual paradigm. In that model, the observed orbital dependence of the local source of the near-surface O2 atmosphere is suggested to be due to the release of \(\mbox{O}_{2}\) likely trapped on the ice grains at dangling bonds by the solar flux with a smaller contribution due to direct sputtering. This assumes that Europa’s icy regolith is permeated with trapped \(\mbox{O}_{2}\) , which could also affect our understanding of the suggestion that the radiolytic products in Europa’s regolith might be a source of oxidants for its underground ocean.

Accretion of Water in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Current Evidence and Implications for the Delivery of Water to Early Earth

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

Protoplanetary disks are dust-rich structures around young stars. The crystalline and amorphous materials contained within these disks are variably thermally processed and accreted to make bodies of a wide range of sizes and compositions, depending on the heliocentric distance of formation. The chondritic meteorites are fragments of relatively small and undifferentiated bodies, and the minerals that they contain carry chemical signatures providing information about the early environment available for planetesimal formation. A current hot topic of debate is the delivery of volatiles to terrestrial planets, understanding that they were built from planetesimals formed under far more reducing conditions than the primordial carbonaceous chondritic bodies. In this review, we describe significant evidence for the accretion of ices and hydrated minerals in the outer protoplanetary disk. In that distant region highly porous and fragile carbon and water-rich transitional asteroids formed, being the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). CCs are undifferentiated meteorites that never melted but experienced other physical processes including thermal and aqueous alteration. Recent evidence indicates that few of them have escaped significant alteration, retaining unique features that can be interpreted as evidence of wet accretion. Some examples of carbonaceous chondrite parent body aqueous alteration will be presented. Finally, atomistic interpretations of the first steps leading to water-mediated alteration during the accretion of CCs are provided and discussed. From these new insights into the water retained in CCs we can decipher the pathways of delivery of volatiles to the terrestrial planets.

Astrophysics with the Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effects

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

In recent years, observations of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect have had significant cosmological implications and have begun to serve as a powerful and independent probe of the warm and hot gas that pervades the Universe. As a few pioneering studies have already shown, SZ observations both complement X-ray observations—the traditional tool for studying the intra-cluster medium—and bring unique capabilities for probing astrophysical processes at high redshifts and out to the low-density regions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. Advances in SZ observations have largely been driven by developments in centimetre-, millimetre-, and submillimetre-wave instrumentation on ground-based facilities, with notable exceptions including results from the Planck satellite. Here we review the utility of the thermal, kinematic, relativistic, non-thermal, and polarised SZ effects for studies of galaxy clusters and other large scale structures, incorporating the many advances over the past two decades that have impacted SZ theory, simulations, and observations. We also discuss observational results, techniques, and challenges, and aim to give an overview and perspective on emerging opportunities, with the goal of highlighting some of the exciting new directions in this field.

Diffuse Radio Emission from Galaxy Clusters

Tue, 02/05/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

In a growing number of galaxy clusters diffuse extended radio sources have been found. These sources are not directly associated with individual cluster galaxies. The radio emission reveal the presence of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM). We classify diffuse cluster radio sources into radio halos, cluster radio shocks (relics), and revived AGN fossil plasma sources. Radio halo sources can be further divided into giant halos, mini-halos, and possible “intermediate” sources. Halos are generally positioned at cluster center and their brightness approximately follows the distribution of the thermal ICM. Cluster radio shocks (relics) are polarized sources mostly found in the cluster’s periphery. They trace merger induced shock waves. Revived fossil plasma sources are characterized by their radio steep-spectra and often irregular morphologies. In this review we give an overview of the properties of diffuse cluster radio sources, with an emphasis on recent observational results. We discuss the resulting implications for the underlying physical acceleration processes that operate in the ICM, the role of relativistic fossil plasma, and the properties of ICM shocks and magnetic fields. We also compile an updated list of diffuse cluster radio sources which will be available on-line (http://galaxyclusters.com). We end this review with a discussion on the detection of diffuse radio emission from the cosmic web.

Shocks and Non-thermal Particles in Clusters of Galaxies

Mon, 02/04/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

Galaxy clusters grow by gas accretion, mostly from mergers of substructures, which release powerful shock waves into cosmic plasmas and convert a fraction of kinetic energy into thermal energy, amplification of magnetic fields and into the acceleration of energetic particles. The modeling of the radio signature of cosmic shocks, combined with the lack of detected \(\gamma \) -rays from cosmic ray (CR) protons, poses challenges to our understanding of how cosmic rays get accelerated and stored in the intracluster medium. Here we review the injection of CRs by cosmic shocks of different strengths, combining the detailed “microscopic” view of collisionless processes governing the creation of non-thermal distributions of electrons and protons in cluster shocks (based on analytic theory and particle-in-cell simulations), with the “macroscopic” view of the large-scale distribution of cosmic rays, suggested by modern cosmological simulations. Time dependent non-linear kinetic models of particle acceleration by multiple internal shocks with large scale compressible motions of plasma with soft CR spectra containing a noticeable energy density in the super-thermal protons of energies below a few GeV which is difficult to constrain by Fermi observations are discussed. We consider the effect of plasma composition on CR injection and super-thermal particle population in the hot intracluster matter which can be constrained by fine high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Fe ions.

Mars’ Background Free Oscillations

Wed, 01/30/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

Observations and inversion of the eigenfrequencies of free oscillations constitute powerful tools to investigate the internal structure of a planet. On Mars, such free oscillations can be excited by atmospheric pressure and wind stresses from the Martian atmosphere, analogous to what occurs on Earth. Over long periods and on a global scale, this phenomenon may continuously excite Mars’ background free oscillations (MBFs), which constitute the so-called Martian hum. However, the source exciting MBFs is related both to the global-scale atmospheric circulation on Mars and to the variations in pressure and wind at the planetary boundary layer, for which no data are available.

To overcome this drawback, we focus herein on a global-scale source and use results of simulations based on General Circular Models (GCMs). GCMs can predict and reproduce long-term, global-scale Martian pressure and wind variations and suggest that, contrary to what happens on Earth, daily correlations in the Martian hum might be generated by the solar-driven GCM. After recalling the excitation terms, we calculate MBFs by using GCM computations and estimate the contribution to the hum made by the global atmospheric circulation. Although we work at the lower limit of MBF signals, the results indicate that the signal is likely to be periodic, which would allow us to use more efficient stacking theories than can be applied to Earth’s hum. We conclude by discussing the perspectives for the InSight SEIS instrument to detect the Martian hum. The amplitude of the MBF signal is on the order of nanogals and is therefore hidden by instrumental and thermal noise, which implies that, provided the predicted daily coherence in hum excitation is present, the InSight SEIS seismometer should be capable of detecting the Martian hum after monthly to yearly stacks.

SEIS: Insight’s Seismic Experiment for Internal Structure of Mars

Mon, 01/28/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

By the end of 2018, 42 years after the landing of the two Viking seismometers on Mars, InSight will deploy onto Mars’ surface the SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Internal Structure) instrument; a six-axes seismometer equipped with both a long-period three-axes Very Broad Band (VBB) instrument and a three-axes short-period (SP) instrument. These six sensors will cover a broad range of the seismic bandwidth, from 0.01 Hz to 50 Hz, with possible extension to longer periods. Data will be transmitted in the form of three continuous VBB components at 2 sample per second (sps), an estimation of the short period energy content from the SP at 1 sps and a continuous compound VBB/SP vertical axis at 10 sps. The continuous streams will be augmented by requested event data with sample rates from 20 to 100 sps. SEIS will improve upon the existing resolution of Viking’s Mars seismic monitoring by a factor of \(\sim 2500\) at 1 Hz and \(\sim 200\,000\) at 0.1 Hz. An additional major improvement is that, contrary to Viking, the seismometers will be deployed via a robotic arm directly onto Mars’ surface and will be protected against temperature and wind by highly efficient thermal and wind shielding. Based on existing knowledge of Mars, it is reasonable to infer a moment magnitude detection threshold of \(M_{{w}} \sim 3\) at \(40^{\circ}\) epicentral distance and a potential to detect several tens of quakes and about five impacts per year. In this paper, we first describe the science goals of the experiment and the rationale used to define its requirements. We then provide a detailed description of the hardware, from the sensors to the deployment system and associated performance, including transfer functions of the seismic sensors and temperature sensors. We conclude by describing the experiment ground segment, including data processing services, outreach and education networks and provide a description of the format to be used for future data distribution.

Circumplanetary Dust Populations

Mon, 01/28/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

We summarize the current state of observations of circumplanetary dust populations, including both dilute and dense rings and tori around the giant planets, ejecta clouds engulfing airless moons, and rings around smaller planetary bodies throughout the Solar System. We also discuss the theoretical models that enable these observations to be understood in terms of the sources, sinks and transport of various dust populations. The dynamics and resulting transport of the particles can be quite complex, due to the fact that their motion is influenced by neutral and plasma drag, radiation pressure, and electromagnetic forces—all in addition to gravity. The relative importance of these forces depends on the environment, as well as the makeup and size of the particles. Possible dust sources include the generation of ejecta particles by impacts, active volcanoes and geysers, and the capture of exogenous particles. Possible dust sinks include collisions with moons, rings, or the central planet, erosion due to sublimation and sputtering, even ejection and escape from the circumplanetary environment.

Geologic Constraints on Early Mars Climate

Thu, 01/24/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

Early Mars climate research has well-defined goals (MEPAG 2018). Achieving these goals requires geologists and climate modelers to coordinate. Coordination is easier if results are expressed in terms of well-defined parameters. Key parameters include the following quantitative geologic constraints. (1) Cumulative post-3.4 Ga precipitation-sourced water runoff in some places exceeded \(1~\mbox{km}\) column. (2) There is no single Early Mars climate problem: the traces of ≥2 river-forming periods are seen. Relative to rivers that formed earlier in Mars history, rivers that formed later in Mars history are found preferentially at lower elevations, and show a stronger dependence on latitude. (3) The duration of the longest individual river-forming climate was \({>}(10^{2}\mbox{--}10^{3})~\mbox{yr}\) , based on paleolake hydrology. (4) Peak runoff production was \({>}0.1~\mbox{mm}/\mbox{hr}\) . However, (5) peak runoff production was intermittent, sustained (in a given catchment) for only <10% of the duration of river-forming climates. (6) The cumulative number of wet years during the valley-network-forming period was \({>}10^{5}~\mbox{yr}\) . (7) Post-Noachian light-toned, layered sedimentary rocks took \({>}10^{7}~\mbox{yr}\) to accumulate. However, (8) an “average” place on Mars saw water for \({<}10^{7}~\mbox{yr}\) after the Noachian, suggesting that the river-forming climates were interspersed with long globally-dry intervals. (9) Geologic proxies for Early Mars atmospheric pressure indicate pressure was not less than 0.012 bar but not much more than 1 bar. A truth table of these geologic constraints versus currently published climate models shows that the late persistence of river-forming climates, combined with the long duration of individual lake-forming climates, is a challenge for most models.

The Space Physics Environment Data Analysis System (SPEDAS)

Tue, 01/22/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

With the advent of the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory (H/GSO), a complement of multi-spacecraft missions and ground-based observatories to study the space environment, data retrieval, analysis, and visualization of space physics data can be daunting. The Space Physics Environment Data Analysis System (SPEDAS), a grass-roots software development platform (www.spedas.org), is now officially supported by NASA Heliophysics as part of its data environment infrastructure. It serves more than a dozen space missions and ground observatories and can integrate the full complement of past and upcoming space physics missions with minimal resources, following clear, simple, and well-proven guidelines. Free, modular and configurable to the needs of individual missions, it works in both command-line (ideal for experienced users) and Graphical User Interface (GUI) mode (reducing the learning curve for first-time users). Both options have “crib-sheets,” user-command sequences in ASCII format that can facilitate record-and-repeat actions, especially for complex operations and plotting. Crib-sheets enhance scientific interactions, as users can move rapidly and accurately from exchanges of technical information on data processing to efficient discussions regarding data interpretation and science. SPEDAS can readily query and ingest all International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP)-compatible products from the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), enabling access to a vast collection of historic and current mission data. The planned incorporation of Heliophysics Application Programmer’s Interface (HAPI) standards will facilitate data ingestion from distributed datasets that adhere to these standards. Although SPEDAS is currently Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based (and interfaces to Java-based tools such as Autoplot), efforts are under-way to expand it further to work with python (first as an interface tool and potentially even receiving an under-the-hood replacement). We review the SPEDAS development history, goals, and current implementation. We explain its “modes of use” with examples geared for users and outline its technical implementation and requirements with software developers in mind. We also describe SPEDAS personnel and software management, interfaces with other organizations, resources and support structure available to the community, and future development plans.

ExoMars Atmospheric Mars Entry and Landing Investigations and Analysis (AMELIA)

Thu, 01/17/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

The entry, descent and landing of Schiaparelli, the ExoMars Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), offered a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity for in situ investigations of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. The aim of the ExoMars AMELIA experiment was to exploit the Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) engineering measurements for scientific investigations of Mars’ atmosphere and surface. Here we present the simulations, modelling and the planned investigations prior to the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) event that took place on 19th October 2016. Despite the unfortunate conclusion of the Schiaparelli mission, flight data recorded during the entry and the descent until the loss of signal, have been recovered. These flight data, although limited and affected by transmission interruptions and malfunctions, are essential for investigating the anomaly and validating the EDL operation, but can also contribute towards the partial achievement of AMELIA science objectives.

The Physics of Galaxy Cluster Outskirts

Wed, 01/02/2019 - 00:00
Abstract

As the largest virialized structures in the universe, galaxy clusters continue to grow and accrete matter from the cosmic web. Due to the low gas density in the outskirts of clusters, measurements are very challenging, requiring extremely sensitive telescopes across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Observations using X-rays, the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect, and weak lensing and galaxy distributions from the optical band, have over the last decade helped to unravel this exciting new frontier of cluster astrophysics, where the infall and virialization of matter takes place. Here, we review the current state of the art in our observational and theoretical understanding of cluster outskirts, and discuss future prospects for exploration using newly planned and proposed observatories.

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